Dave Chappell
2020
115 pgs; Softcover
ISBN: 978-1-61399-806-9
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USD 50.00 USD 50.00
PB-04
Printing 1  

Description 

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Used successfully for more than a century, waterflooding remains the most widely performed process relying on an external energy source to maximize reservoir recovery. Multiple factors across a wide range of disciplines contribute to the delivery of a fully optimized project, but not all of these critical success factors have been well-documented. A focus on further optimizing all the varying parts of the process has emerged over time to deliver project success. Waterflooding: Surveillance and Remediation describes the various elements that could be included as components in a waterflood-management surveillance plan and reviews the options available to improve flood performance.

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Dave Chappell has spent his career working on waterflood developments and operations in Brunei, Oman, Thailand, and Australia. In 2003, he became one of the founding members of Shell’s central waterflood team tasked with improving waterflood performance across the entire Shell waterflood portfolio, based in The Hague, The Netherlands. He went on to manage that group from 2008 until his retirement in 2018. Since then, he has worked as an independent consultant in the waterflood arena.

1. Background 1

2. Introduction 2

3. Surveillance 3
3.1 Annual Surveillance Plan 3
3.2 Surface Facilities Monitoring 3
3.2.1 Water Sampling 4
3.2.2 Bacterial Surveillance 4
3.2.3 Water Quality Monitoring 9
3.2.4 Compositional Analysis 12
3.2.5 Corrosion Monitoring 16
3.3 Well Surveillance 19
3.3.1 Injectors 19
3.3.2 Producers 24
3.4 Reservoir Surveillance 30
3.4.1 Pressure Data 30
3.4.2 Saturation Measurement 30
3.4.3 4D Seismic 31
3.4.4 Electromagnetic Surveys 37
3.4.5 Tracers 38
3.4.6 Interference Tests 41
3.4.7 Streamline Modeling 42
3.4.8 Capacitance Resistance Modeling 44

4. Data Analysis 44
4.1 Well and Pattern Reviews 44
4.2 Diagnostic Plots 47
4.2.1 Chan Plot 47
4.2.2 Recovery Efficiency 49
4.2.3 Voidage Replacement Ratio 51
4.2.4 Productivity and Injectivity Index 52
4.3 Yang Plot 52

5. Remediation, Further Development, and Recovery Optimization 53
5.1 Benchmarking 54
5.2 Key Performance Indicators 55
5.3 Water Shutoff 56
5.3.1 Mechanical Shutoff 57
5.3.2 Expandable Zonal Inflow Profiler 59
5.3.3 Inflow Control Valve Usage 61
5.3.4 Chemical Shutoff 61
5.4 Stimulation/Perforation 71
5.5 Facilities Debottlenecking and Optimization 74
5.6 H2S Control and Remediation 77
5.7 Cyclic Injection 79
5.8 Further Development 82
5.8.1 Infill 83
5.8.2 Chemical Enhanced Oil Recovery 87
5.8.3 Water-Alternating-Gas Injection 98
5.9 Blowdown 102

6. Conclusions 103

7. Nomenclature 104

8. References 106

Preview select pages from the Waterflooding: Surveillance and Remediation by downloading the PDF below.

Waterflooding: Surveillance and Remediation is available in print and Adobe Digital Edition.