Dave Chappell
2020
Softcover
ISBN: 978-1-61399-798-7
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USD 50.00 USD 50.00
PB-05
Printing 1  

Description 

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Used successfully for more than a century, waterflooding remains the most widely performed process relying on an external energy source to maximize reservoir recovery. Multiple factors across a wide range of disciplines contribute to the delivery of a fully optimized project, but not all of these critical success factors have been well-documented. A focus on further optimizing all the varying parts of the process has emerged over time to deliver project success. Waterflooding: Injection Regime and Injection Wells explores the benefits and drawbacks of both matrix and fractured injection and reviews the impacts that these injection regimes can have on waterflood performance.

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Dave Chappell has spent his career working on waterflood developments and operations in Brunei, Oman, Thailand, and Australia. In 2003, he became one of the founding members of Shell’s central waterflood team tasked with improving waterflood performance across the entire Shell waterflood portfolio, based in The Hague, The Netherlands. He went on to manage that group from 2008 until his retirement in 2018. Since then, he has worked as an independent consultant in the waterflood arena.

1. Background 1

2. Introduction 2

3. Matrix Injection 3

4. Fractured Injection 21
4.1 Fracture Initiation and Propagation 23
4.2 Fracture Containment and Sweep Impacts 26
4.2.1 Reservoir Pressure Change Impacts 29
4.2.2 Temperature Impacts 31
4.2.3 Impact of Shut-In on Fracture Dimensions 35
4.3 Water Quality Impacts 35
4.4 Mobility Impacts 38
4.5 Fracture Geometry 39
4.5.1 Fracture Aligned Sweep Technology 42
4.6 Modeling Fractured Injection 45
4.7 Fracture Monitoring 46
4.8 Characterizing Fractured Injection 53
4.8.1 Examples of Poor Sweep Under Fractured Injection 55
4.9 Stress Measurement 56
4.9.1 Horizontal In-Situ Stress Orientation 56
4.9.2 Stress Magnitude 58
4.10 Rock Mechanical Properties 62
4.10.1 Young’s Modulus and Poisson’s Ratio 62
4.10.2 Fracture Toughness 63

5. Hydraulic Fractures and “Pseudomatrix” Injection 63

6. Wormholes 64

7. Reservoir Containment 65
7.1 Containment Assurance 68

8. Wells 70
8.1 Well Type 71
8.1.1 Horizontal Wells 71
8.1.2 Horizontal-Well Cleanup 74
8.1.3 Stimulation 77
8.1.4 Well Placement and Sweep Impacts 78
8.1.5 Multilateral Wells 79
8.1.6 Dumpflood 82
8.1.7 Producer-to-Injector Conversions 85
8.2 Well Completions 86
8.2.1 ICD Completions 87
8.2.2 ICV Completions 89
8.2.3 ICV or ICD? 92
8.2.4 Materials Selection 92
8.2.5 Cementation 93
8.2.6 Sand Control 94
8.2.7 Well Failure in Deepwater Injectors in UnconsolidatedSand Settings 95
8.3 Injection-Well Startup 104

9. Annular Injection 104

10. Conclusions 105

11. Nomenclature 106

12. References 108

Preview select pages from Waterflooding: Injection Regime and Injection Wells by downloading the PDF below.

Waterflooding: Injection Regime and Injection Wells is available in print and Adobe Digital Edition.