Dave Chappell
2020
110 pgs; Softcover
ISBN: 978-1-61399-810-6
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USD 50.00 USD 50.00
PB-02
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Description 

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Used successfully for more than a century, waterflooding remains the most widely performed process relying on an external energy source to maximize reservoir recovery. Multiple factors across a wide range of disciplines contribute to the delivery of a fully optimized project, but not all of these critical success factors have been well-documented. A focus on further optimizing all the varying parts of the process has emerged over time to deliver project success. Waterflooding: Facilities and Operations looks at the design of injection and production systems and how they influence success in waterflooding.


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Dave Chappell has spent his career working on waterflood developments and operations in Brunei, Oman, Thailand, and Australia. In 2003, he became one of the founding members of Shell’s central waterflood team tasked with improving waterflood performance across the entire Shell waterflood portfolio, based in The Hague, The Netherlands. He went on to manage that group from 2008 until his retirement in 2018. Since then, he has worked as an independent consultant in the waterflood arena.

1. Background 1

2. Introduction 2

3. Injection System 2
3.1 Seawater Injection 3
3.1.1 Seawater Intake 5
3.1.2 Filtration 10
3.1.3 Deoxygenation 15
3.1.4 Pumping 22
3.1.5 Sulfate Removal 22
3.1.6 Chemical Injection 26
3.1.7 Subsea Raw-Seawater Injection 27
3.1.8 Low-Salinity-Flood Facilities 29
3.1.9 Mobile Water-Injection System 32
3.2 Produced-Water Injection 33
3.2.1 Oil Removal 35
3.2.2 Solids Removal 45
3.2.3 Mixed Produced-Water/Seawater Injection 51
3.2.4 Onshore Treatment Processes 52
3.2.5 Offshore Treatment Processes 55
3.3 Chemical-Injection System 56
3.3.1 Process Chemicals and Injection Location 59
3.4 Injection Distribution and Subsea Injection Systems 61
3.4.1 Injection Flowlines 64
3.5 Subsea Separation and Injection 67

4. Production 70
4.1 Dehydration 70
4.1.1 Emulsions 71
4.1.2 Demulsification 72
4.1.3 Coalescence 74
4.1.4 Bulk Separation 75
4.1.5 Dehydration Equipment Options 76
4.1.6 Improvements to Existing Processes 80

5. Operations 83
5.1 Organization 83
5.2 Commissioning and Startup 84
5.2.1 Flushing Injection Flowlines 87
5.3 Operating Philosophy 88
5.4 Well Testing 89
5.5 Injection-Water Quality 92
5.6 Biological Control in Injection Flowlines 95
5.7 Mature-Waterflood Operations 95
5.8 Waterflood System Maintenance 96
5.9 Corrosion Management 97
5.10 Load Shedding 97
5.11 Cost of Water 97
5.12 Water-Injection Uptime 98
5.13 H2S Management 101
5.14 System and Equipment Troubleshooting 102
5.14.1 Seawater Treatment System 102
5.14.2 Produced-Water Treatment System 106

6. Conclusions 108

7. Nomenclature 108

8. References 110

Preview select pages from Waterflooding: Facilities and Operations by downloading the PDF below.

Waterflooding: Facilities and Operations is available in print and Adobe Digital Edition.