Dave Chappell
2020
120 pgs; Softcover
ISBN: 978-1-61399-802-1
Qty Price Retail
 
USD 50.00 USD 50.00
PB-03
Printing 1  

Description 

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Used successfully for more than a century, waterflooding remains the most widely performed process relying on an external energy source to maximize reservoir recovery.  Multiple factors across a wide range of disciplines contribute to the delivery of a fully optimized project, but not all of these critical success factors have been well-documented. A focus on further optimizing all the varying parts of the process has emerged over time to deliver project success.  Waterflooding: Design and Development reviews the factors that can contribute to poor waterflood performance and considers how they can be properly managed.

Also Available by Dave Chappell
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Dave Chappell has spent his career working on waterflood developments and operations in Brunei, Oman, Thailand, and Australia. In 2003, he became one of the founding members of Shell’s central waterflood team tasked with improving waterflood performance across the entire Shell waterflood portfolio, based in The Hague, The Netherlands. He went on to manage that group from 2008 until his retirement in 2018. Since then, he has worked as an independent consultant in the waterflood arena.

1. Background 1

2. Introduction 2

3. What Makes for a Good Waterflood Candidate? 2
3.1 Drive Mechanisms 2
3.1.1 Solution Gas Drive 3
3.1.2 Waterdrive 4
3.1.3 Gas Cap Drive 5
3.1.4 Gravity Drainage 6
3.1.5 Compaction Drive 6
3.1.6 Combination Drive 7
3.2 Other Factors That Affect Waterflood Success 7
3.2.1 Reservoir Geometry 7
3.2.2 Lithology, Porosity, Permeability 8
3.2.3 Reservoir Depth 8
3.2.4 Continuity of Reservoir-Rock Properties 9
3.2.5 Fluid Saturation and Distribution 9
3.2.6 Fluid Properties and Relative Permeability Relationships 11
3.2.7 Waterflood Timing 11

4. In-Situ Factors Influencing Recovery Efficiency 11
4.1 Initial Oil Saturation 11
4.2 Initial Gas Saturation 12
4.3 Structural and Stratigraphic Complexity 12
4.4 Wettability 12
4.4.1 Amott Test 15
4.4.2 USBM Index 16
4.5 Capillary Pressure 17
4.6 Relative Permeability 21
4.7 Mobility and Mobility Ratio 23
4.8 Fractional Flow and Predictive Models 25

5. Geological Impacts 29
5.1 Geological Properties Affecting Waterflood 29
5.1.1 Heterogeneity 29
5.1.2 Structural Dip 30
5.1.3 Drainability and Floodability 30
5.1.4 Stratigraphy 30
5.1.5 Net-to-Gross 31
5.1.6 Faulting and Fracturing 31
5.2 Geological Setting 32
5.2.1 Fluvial Deposits 32
5.2.2 Deltaic Systems 33
5.2.3 Shoreface Deposits 34
5.2.4 Aeolian Deposits 35
5.2.5 Glacial Deposits 35
5.2.6 Turbidite Reservoirs 36
5.2.7 Carbonate Reservoirs 36

6. Waterflood Patterns 42
6.1 Peripheral Flooding 42
6.2 Main Pattern Types 46
6.3 Updip Injection 53

7. Sweep and Recovery 57

8. Well Spacing and Infill 67

9. Waterflood Timing and Operating Pressure 70
9.1 Artificial Lift 72

10. Producer/Injector Ratio 73

11. Flood Throughput 76

12. Waterflood Staging 81
12.1 Waterflood Pilots 82

13. Aquifer Strength and Impacts 84

14. Reservoir Modeling 86

15. Design Issues for Specific Environments 88
15.1 Deepwater Waterflood 88
15.1.1 Dry vs. Wet Tree 89
15.1.2 Flow Assurance 91
15.1.3 Project Phasing 92
15.1.4 Depth 93
15.1.5 Cost 94
15.1.6 Injection Capacity 94
15.1.7 Injector Numbers 94
15.1.8 Well Testing 95
15.1.9 Geology 95
15.2 Flooding Heavy-Oil Reservoirs 98
15.2.1 Well Spacing 101
15.2.2 Heterogeneity 101
15.2.3 Hydrocarbon Pore-Volume Throughput 101
15.2.4 Horizontal Wells 101
15.2.5 Voidage Replacement and Injection Rate 102
15.2.6 Waterflood Timing 102
15.2.7 Hot Waterflood 102
15.3 Hot Waterflooding 103
15.4 Low-Permeability Waterflood 103
15.5 Flooding Dual-Porosity Carbonate Systems 109

16. Well and Completion Aspects—Conformance-Control Strategy 111

17. Facilities Aspects 113
17.1 Water Sourcing 114

18. Conclusions 114

19. Nomenclature 114

20. References 116

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Waterflooding: Design and Development is available in print and Adobe Digital Edition.