Dave Chappell
2020
110 pgs; Softcover
ISBN: 978-1-61399-794-9
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Description 

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Used successfully for more than a century, waterflooding remains the most widely performed process relying on an external energy source to maximize reservoir recovery. Multiple factors across a wide range of disciplines contribute to the delivery of a fully optimized project, but not all of these critical success factors have been well-documented. A focus on further optimizing all the varying parts of the process has emerged over time to deliver project success. Waterflooding: Chemistry explores in detail the significant impacts that chemistry-related issues can have on the progress of waterflood projects.

Also Available by Dave Chappell
  Waterflooding: Facilities and Operations 
  Waterflooding: Design and Development 
  Waterflooding: Surveillance and Remediation 
  Waterflooding: Injection Regime and Injection Wells

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Dave Chappell has spent his career working on waterflood developments and operations in Brunei, Oman, Thailand, and Australia. In 2003, he became one of the founding members of Shell’s central waterflood team tasked with improving waterflood performance across the entire Shell waterflood portfolio, based in The Hague, The Netherlands. He went on to manage that group from 2008 until his retirement in 2018. Since then, he has worked as an independent consultant in the waterflood arena.

1. Background 1

2. Introduction 2

3. Reservoir Souring 2
3.1 Negative Effects of H2S 2
3.1.1 Health, Safety, and Environment Exposure 2
3.1.2 Corrosion 3
3.1.3 Gas Sales 4
3.2 What Causes Reservoir Souring in Waterfloods? 5
3.3 Reservoir-Souring Mechanisms 9
3.4 Factors Impacting Souring Severity and Timing 12
3.5 Souring Modeling and Prediction 16
3.6 Souring Prevention 18
3.6.1 Biocide Treatment 19
3.6.2 Nitrate Injection 23
3.6.3 Perchlorate Injection 30
3.6.4 Molybdate 31
3.6.5 Sulfate Removal 31
3.7 Microbial Recovery Impacts 32

4. Scaling 37
4.1 Prediction of Scaling Problems 38
4.1.1 Reservoir Modeling 44
4.2 Scaling Locations and Their Impacts 45
4.2.1 Injection System 45
4.2.2 Reservoir 46
4.2.3 Near-Wellbore Region of Producers 46
4.2.4 Producing Wellbore 46
4.2.5 Wellhead and Gathering System 47
4.2.6 Processing Facilities 48
4.3 Scale Prevention 48
4.3.1 Scale Squeeze 51
4.3.2 Sulfate Removal 58
4.4 Scale Remediation 61
4.4.1 Mechanical Removal 62
4.4.2 Dissolution 62
4.5 Scale Types and Characteristics 64
4.5.1 Calcium Carbonate 64
4.5.2 Calcium Sulfate 65
4.5.3 Barium Sulfate and Strontium Sulfate 66
4.5.4 Naturally Occurring Radioactive Materials 67
4.5.5 Iron Sulfide 67
4.5.6 Schmoo 68

5. Incompatibility with Clay Mineralogy 69
5.1 Shale Stability 75
5.2 Low-Salinity Flooding 75
5.2.1 Timing for Low-Salinity-Flood Applications 81
5.2.2 Potential Application Environments 82
5.2.3 Optimal Water Chemistry 83
5.2.4 Field Experience 84
5.2.5 Low-Salinity Flooding in Carbonate Reservoirs 88

6. Anhydrite Swelling 91

7. Waxes 92

8. Asphaltenes 93

9. Hydrates 94

10. Corrosion and Oxygen Control 95
10.1 Oxygen 96
10.2 Microbially Induced Corrosion 99
10.3 Corrosion Control in Water-Injection Systems 101

11. Water Sourcing for Waterfloods 101
11.1 Selection Factors 101
11.1.1 Compositional Data 101
11.1.2 Availability and Deliverability 102
11.1.3 Temperature 103
11.1.4 Water Quality 103
11.2 Water-Source Options 103
11.2.1 Seawater 103
11.2.2 Aquifer Sources 105
11.2.3 Produced Water 106
11.2.4 Other Water-Source Options 107

12. Conclusions 107

13. Nomenclature 108

14. References 110

Preview select pages from Waterflooding: Chemistry by downloading the PDF below.

Waterflooding: Chemistry is available in print, and Adobe Digital Edition.