A.D. Hill
2021
239 pgs.; Softcover
ISBN: 978-1-61399-824-3
QtyPriceRetail
Price USD 220.00Retail USD 220.00Add to CartAdd to Wishlist

Description 

SPE Member Price 110 USD 

Now available in a new Second Edition, Production Logging: Theoretical and Interpretive Elements is the “must have” reference for petroleum engineers faced with obtaining and interpreting production logs.  Readers will learn how to determine which log or combination of logs to run, the procedures to follow to obtain the most information and how to make initial interpretations of commonly used production logs.  With the changes in technology since the First Edition, a full chapter has been added on the topic of production logging in nominally horizontal wells along with new information on well completion logs.

Similar Products

Hydraulic Fracturing: Fundamentals and Advancements
Jennifer Miskimins, Editor-in-Chief
Analysis of Oil and Gas Production Performance
Steven W. Poston, Marcelo Laprea-Bigott and Bobby D. Poe Jr.
Tight Gas Reservoirs
Stephen A. Holditch, John Spivey, John Y. Wang

Dr. A. Daniel Hill is Professor and holder of the Noble Endowed Chair in Petroleum Engineering in the Harold Vance Department of Petroleum Engineering at Texas A&M University. Dr. Hill joined the Texas A&M faculty in 2004. Previously, he taught for twenty-two years at The University of Texas at Austin after spending five years in industry. He holds a B.S. degree from Texas A&M University, and M.S. and Ph.D. degrees from The University of Texas at Austin, all in chemical engineering.  He is the author of over 200 technical papers and five patents. He has been a Society of Petroleum Engineers (SPE) Distinguished Lecturer, has served on numerous SPE committees and was founding chairman of the Austin SPE Section. He was named a Distinguished Member of SPE in 1999, received the SPE Production and Operations Award in 2008, was one of the first two recipients of the SPE Pipeline Award in 2012, received the SPE Regional Distinguished Achievement Award for Petroleum Engineering Faculty for the Gulf Coast North America Region in 2013, received the SPE John Franklin Carll Award in 2014, and was named an Honorary Member of SPE and AIME in 2020. From 2014 to 2017, he was a member of the SPE Board of Directors. In 2019, Professor Hill was named a Regents Professor by the Texas A&M System Board of Regents. Professor Hill is an expert in the areas of production engineering, well completions, well stimulation, production logging, and complex well performance (horizontal and multilateral wells) and has presented lectures and courses and consulted on these topics throughout the world.

About the Author vii
Preface ix
Acknowledgments xi

Chapter 1 – Introduction 1
1.1 Definition and Use of Production Logging 1
1.2 History of Production Logging 1
1.3 Scope and Objectives 2
1.4 Applications of Production Logging 2
1.4.1 Production Logging Applications During Drilling 2
1.4.2 Applications of Production Logs During Subsequent Production or Injection 2
1.4.3 Applications of Production Logs with Well Completions and Workovers 4
1.5 Production Logging Job Planning and Reporting 6
1.5.1 Planning the Production Logging Job 6
1.5.2 Record Keeping 6
1.5.3 Production Logging Data Requirements 6
1.5.4 Production Logging Results Presentations 7
1.5.5 Quality Control 7
1.6 Organization 7
References 8

Chapter 2 – Single-Phase Flow in Pipes 9
2.1 Introduction 9
2.2 Laminar and Turbulent Flow 9
2.3 Velocity Profiles 10
2.4 Flow in Annuli 11
2.5 Downhole Fluid Properties 13
Nomenclature 14
References 14
SI Metric Conversion Factors 14

Chapter 3 – Temperature Logging 15
3.1 Introduction 15
3.2 Tools and Operations 15
3.2.1 Production Logging Temperature Sensors 15
3.2.2 Fiber Optic Distributed Temperature Sensors 16
3.3 Theory of Temperature Behavior in Wellbores 16
3.3.1 Geothermal Temperature Profile 16
3.3.2 Wellbore Temperature in Regions of No Reservoir Flow 18
3.3.3 Wellbore Temperature Opposite Injection or Production Zones 22
3.3.4 Wellbore Temperature Behavior Opposite Gas Zones 24
3.4 Temperature Log Interpretation 25
3.4.1 Quantitative Analysis of Temperature Logs 25
3.4.2 Qualitative Temperature Log Interpretation 31
3.4.3 Temperature Log Limitations 34
3.5 Detection of Hydraulic Fractures in Vertical Wells with Temperature Logs 35
3.6 Temperature Behavior in Horizontal Wells 39
3.6.1 Gas Well Flow Profile 40
3.6.2 Oil and Water Flow Profiles 41
3.6.3 Multistage Hydraulic Fracturing Diagnosis Using DTS-Measured Temperature Profiles 41
3.7 Guidelines for Running and Interpreting Temperature Logs 44
3.7.1 Recommendations for Running Temperature Logs 44
3.7.2 Guidelines for Interpreting Temperature Logs 45
Nomenclature 45
References 46
SI Metric Conversion Factors 47

Chapter 4 – Radioactive-Tracer Logging 49
4.1 Introduction 49
4.2 Tools and Operations 49
4.3 Diagnosing Well Conditions by Tagging with Radioactive Isotopes 50
4.4 Tracer-Loss Log 50
4.4.1 Running a Tracer-Loss Log 50
4.4.2 Tracer-Loss Log Interpretation 51
4.4.3 Channel Identification—Tracer-Loss Logging 55
4.4.4 Limitations of the Tracer-Loss Log 57
4.5 Velocity-Shot Log 57
4.5.1 Running a Velocity-Shot Log 57
4.5.2 Velocity-Shot Log Analysis 59
4.5.3 Effect of Variable Wellbore Cross-Sectional Area on Velocity-Shot Logs 61
4.5.4 Effect of Fluid Exit Between Detectors on Velocity-Shot Analysis 61
4.6 Tracer Placement 65
4.7 Radioactive-Tracer Logging in Laminar Flow 68
4.7.1 Radioactive-Tracer Logging in Laminar Flow of Water 68
4.7.2 Radioactive-Tracer Logging in Viscous Solutions 70
4.8 Two-Pulse Tracer Logging 71
4.9 Guidelines for Running and Interpreting Radioactive-Tracer Logs 72
4.9.1 Tracer-Loss Logs 72
4.9.2 Velocity-Shot Logs 73
4.9.3 General Recommendations 73
Nomenclature 73
References 74
SI Metric Conversion Factors 75

Chapter 5 – Spinner-Flowmeter Logging 77
5.1 Introduction 77
5.2 Tools and Operations 77
5.3 Running a Spinner Flowmeter 78
5.3.1 Tool Operation 78
5.3.2 Surface Electronics 79
5.3.3 Constant Flow Rate 79
5.3.4 Sufficient Flow Rate 79
5.3.5 Physical Condition of Well 79
5.3.6 Sand Production 79
5.4 Theory of Spinner Response 79
5.5 Spinner-Flowmeter-Log Interpretation 80
5.5.1 The Effective Velocity 80
5.5.2 Multipass Method 82
5.5.3 Two-Pass Method 88
5.5.4 Single-Pass Interpretation 92
5.5.5 Spinner Flowmeter Interpretation Using Global Error Minimization 94
5.6 Special Tools and Applications 94
5.6.1 Low-Flow-Rate Wells 94
5.6.2 High-Flow-Rate Wells 94
5.6.3 Horizontal Spinners 95
5.6.4 Spinner Flowmeters in Openhole Wells 95
5.7 Guidelines for Running and Interpreting Spinner Flowmeters 95
5.7.1 Running Spinner Flowmeters 96
5.7.2 Interpreting Spinner-Flowmeter Logs 96
Nomenclature 96
References 97
SI Metric Conversion Factors 98

Chapter 6 – Multiphase Flow in Pipes 99
6.1 Introduction 99
6.2 The Holdup Phenomenon 99
6.3 Vertical Two-Phase Flow Regimes 102
6.3.1 Flow-Regime Descriptions 102
6.3.2 Flow-Regime Maps 102
6.4 Horizontal Two-Phase Flow Regimes 104
6.5 Oil/Water Flow Regimes 105
6.6 Implication of Flow Regimes for Production Logging 106
6.7 Two-Phase Pressure-Drop Behavior 106
6.8 Effect of Pipe Inclination on Two-Phase Flow 108
6.9 Flow from Perforations in a Two-Phase Well 110
6.10 Three-Phase Flow 111
Nomenclature 111
References 112
SI Metric Conversion Factors 113

Chapter 7 – Production Logging in Multiphase Vertical or Deviated Wells 115
7.1 Introduction 115
7.2 Production Log Interpretation in Multiphase Flow 116
7.3 Operational Procedures in Production Wells 117
7.4 Fluid-Velocity Measurements 117
7.4.1 Spinner Flowmeters 117
7.4.2 Flow-Concentrating Flowmeters 120
7.4.3 Arrays of Spinner Flowmeters 121
7.4.4 Tracer Logging 121
7.5 Fluid-Identification Logs 121
7.5.1 Fluid-Density Logs 121
7.5.2 Capacitance Logs 123
7.5.3 Optical Gas Holdup Logs 126
7.6 Quantitative Analysis of Multiphase-Flow Logs 126
7.6.1 Slip Velocity from Laboratory Data 128
7.6.2 Slip Velocity from Log Responses above All Perforations 128
7.6.3 Slip Velocity from Two-Phase-Flow Pressure-Drop Correlation 129
7.6.4 Calibrating a Slip Velocity Correlation with the Curtis Method 129
7.7 Quantitative Analysis in Three-Phase Flow 133
7.8 Qualitative Production Log Interpretation in Multiphase Flow 134
7.9 Guidelines for Running and Interpreting Production Logs in Multiphase Flow 138
Nomenclature 141
References 142
SI Metric Conversion Factors 143

Chapter 8 – Production Logging in Horizontal Multiphase Flow 145
8.1 Introduction 145
8.2 Production Logging Tool Conveyance in Horizontal Wells 146
8.2.1 Coiled Tubing Conveyance 146
8.2.2 Tractor Conveyance 146
8.3 Array Spinner Flowmeters 147
8.4 Array Ultrasonic Doppler Flowmeters 148
8.5 Array Holdup Measurements 149
8.6 Tracer or Time of Flight Methods 151
8.6.1 Chemical Tracers 152
8.6.2 Oxygen Activation to Measure Water Velocity 152
8.6.3 Bubble or Droplet Time of Flight 153
8.6.4 Temperature Wave as a Tracer 153
8.7 Interpretation of Array Tool Responses 155
8.8 Horizontal Multiphase Examples 160
Nomenclature 163
References 164

Chapter 9 – Noise Logging 167
9.1 Introduction 167
9.2 Tools and Operations 167
9.2.1 Traditional Noise Logging Tools 167
9.2.2 Spectral Noise Logging Tools 167
9.3 Noise Logging Theory and Applications 169
9.3.1 Noise Generated by Flow through Restrictions 170
9.3.2 Noise Generated by Matrix Flow 176
9.3.3 Flow from Fractures and Perforations 179
9.3.4 Flow from Perforations 180
9.3.5 Noise from Leaks 181
9.3.6 Axial Flow Rate in the Wellbore 183
9.3.7 Noise Logging During Drilling 187
9.3.8 Influence of Liquid Levels 188
9.4 Distributed Acoustic Sensing 189
9.5 Guidelines for Running and Interpreting Noise Logs 190
Nomenclature 191
References 191
SI Metric Conversion Factors 192

Chapter 10 – Cement-Quality Logging 193
10.1 Introduction 193
10.2 Cement-Bond Logging 193
10.2.1 Tools and Operation Theory 193
10.2.2 Cement-Bond-Log Presentations 196
10.2.3 Cement-Bond Log Interpretation 202
10.3 Attenuation-Ratio Logs 208
10.4 Pad-Type Cement-Bond Log Tools208
10.5 Ultrasonic-Pulse-Echo Logs 210
10.5.1 Introduction 210
10.5.2 Tools and Theory of Operation 210
10.5.3 Ultrasonic-Pulse-Echo Log Displays 213
10.5.4 Ultrasonic-Pulse-Echo Log Examples 214
10.6 Ultrasonic-Flexural-Wave Logs 218
10.6.1 Tools and Theory of Operation 218
10.6.2 Ultrasonic-Flexural-Wave Log Examples 218
10.7 Cement-Quality Logging Guidelines 221
10.7.1 Cement-Bond and Attenuation-Ratio Logs 221
10.7.2 Ultrasonic Cement Quality Logs 221
Nomenclature 225
References 225
SI Metric Conversion Factors 226

Chapter 11 – Downhole Video Logging 227
11.1 Introduction 227
11.2 Identifying Fluid Entries 228
11.3 Sand in the Wellbore 229
11.4 Casing Integrity 229
11.5 Scale 229
11.6 Locating Fish 230
11.7 Fracture Diagnosis from Perforation Erosion 230
References 233
Index 235

Preview Production Logging: Theoretical and Interpretive Elements, Second Edition by downloading the PDF below.

Production Logging: Theoretical and Interpretive Elements, Second Edition is available in printAdobe Digital EditionAdobe Digital Edition Rentalprint and Adobe Digital Edition set, Amazon Kindle and Apple iBook formats.