Syed A. Ali, Leonard Kalfayan, and Carl Montgomery
305 pp.; Softcover
SPE Monograph Series, Vol. 26
ISBN: 978-1-61399-426-9
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Stimulation of oil, gas, and injection wells with acid is almost as old as the petroleum engineering industry itself. Acid Stimulation, ensures a comprehensive and up-to-the-minute presentation by 19 subject matter experts, all at the forefront of the development of acidizing technology. Each chapter delivers an authoritative presentation of the key areas of Acid Stimulation, providing an important resource for anyone who designs, analyzes, and/or improves acidizing treatments.

Acid Stimulation includes

• A concise review of the tremendous amount of information that has been gathered on the subject since the introduction of the first patents 100 years ago.
• A summary of the mechanisms that cause formation damage and how to quantify that damage.
• A summary of the chemistry, reaction kinetics, and methods of measurement of reactive fluids.
• The latest design information and philosophies for both carbonate and sandstone acidizing.
• Coverage of diversion, acid additives, and acid corrosion control included. 
• Includes guidelines for treatment evaluation and real-time diagnostics.
• The latest models and measurement techniques for the prediction of acid fracture conductivity, rock dissolution, worm-holing fluid loss, and acid transport.

• Current practices in acid treatment safety, quality control, and protection of the environment. 
• Many of the sections are supplemented with problem sets to reinforce concepts. 


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Edited by Steve Nas and Deepak M. Gala
Syed A. Ali is a technical adviser at Schlumberger Technology Corp. He began his career as a project geologist at Gulf Research and Development Co. in 1976 and held various positions at Chevron starting in 1981. He joined Schlumberger in 2007. Ali is recognized as an expert in formation damage control, sandstone acidizing, and production chemistry and is the author of approximately 150 technical papers. Ali received the 2014 SPE DeGolyer Distinguished Service Medal, the 2006 SPE Production and Operations Award, the 2012 Distinguished Service Award, Distinguished Membership in 2013, and the 2015 Honorary Membership Award. He served as a Distinguished Lecturer in 2004–2005. In 2009, Ali played an instrumental role in establishing the SPE International Production and Operations Conference. He also helped establish the SPE Deepwater Drilling and Completions Conference in 2010 and was co-chair of the 2014 conference. He is chair of the JPT Editorial Committee. Ali holds BS and MS degrees in geology from the University of Karachi in Pakistan, an MS in geology from Ohio State University, and a PhD in geology from Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute. 

Leonard J. Kalfayan is a Global Advisor with Hess Corp. based in Houston. His background is in oil, gas, and geothermal production enhancement; new technology development and implementation; and business development. He was a 2005 SPE Distinguished Lecturer and has served on numerous SPE program and technical committees. He is author of more than 30 SPE and other journal publications and serves as a technical reviewer for SPE Production & Operations. He is also author of the book Production Enhancement With Acid Stimulation and co-author of the book The Energy Imperative. 

Carl T. Montgomery, SPE, is a Senior Project Advisor with NSI Technologies based in Tulsa, Oklahoma. Formerly, Carl was with ConocoPhillips, Arco, and Dowell Schlumberger and has worked on wells in 54 different countries around the world. Carl has served SPE as a Distinguished Lecturer, was the first SPE International Technical Director for Drilling & Completions, has presented SPE short courses on fracturing, and was awarded the 2007 SPE Drilling and Completions award. He has authored a textbook on Hydraulic Fracturing, numerous papers and chapters in several additional stimulation and cementing books, and holds 27 US/international patents.

 Table of Contents


1 Introduction

2 Formation Damage

2.1 Introduction

2.2 Quantifying Formation Damage

2.3 Determination of Flow Efficiency & Skin

2.4 Formation Damage vs. Pseudodamage

2.5 Drilling-Induced Formation Damage

2.6 Formation Damage Caused by Completion & Workover Fluids

2.7 Damage During Perforating & Cementing

2.8 Formation Damage Caused by Fines Migration

2.9 Formation Damage Caused by Swelling Clays

2.10 Formation Damage in Injection Wells

2.11 Formation Damage Caused by Paraffins & Asphaltenes

2.12 Formation Damage Resulting From Emulsion & Sludge Formation

2.13 Formation Damage Resulting From Condensate Banking

2.14 Formation Damage Resulting From Gas Breakout

2.15 Formation Damage Resulting From Water Blocks

2.16 Formation Damage Resulting From Wettability Alteration

2.17 Bacteria Plugging

2.18 Conclusion

3 Acidizing Chemistry

3.1 Introduction

3.2 Introduction to Chemical Reactions

3.3 Chemistry of Rocks & Minerals

3.4 Chemistry of Fluids

3.5 Measurement of Reaction Rates

3.6 Reactions

4 Carbonate Acidizing

4.1 Introduction

4.2 Carbonate Geological Considerations for Acidizing

4.3 Reaction Chemistry

4.4 Wormhole Patterns

4.5 Wormholing Models

4.6 Additives

4.7 Treatment Design

5 Sandstone Acidizing

5.1 Introduction

5.2 Design Issues

5.3 Guidelines

5.4 Experimental Results

5.5 Sandstone Acidizing Models

5.6 Relating Changes in Mineral Concentration to Changes in Porosity & Permeability

5.7 Measuring Critical Parameters for the Lumped Parameter Model-the Damkohler Number & Acid Capacity Number

5.8 Scaling Up the Lumped Parameter Model to Radial Flow

5.9 More-Complex Models

5.10 Estimating the Maximum Injection Rate

5.11 Computer Design Tools

5.12 Real-Time Monitoring

6 Acid Placement & Diversion

6.1 Introduction

6.2 Diversion & Placement Philosophy

6.3 Placement & Diversion

6.4 Diversion

6.5 Decision Tree

6.6 Placement

6.7 Spotting Acid

6.8 High Rate & Maximum Pressure

6.9 Diversion Methods

7 Treatment Evaluation & Real-Time Diagnosis

7.1 Introduction

7.2 Diagnosis Method

7.3 Downhole Pressure Estimate

7.4 Data Required for Field Application

7.5 Field Examples

8 Acid Fracturing

8.1 Introduction

8.2 Acid Transport & Fracture-Face Dissolution

8.3 Acid-Fracture Fluids

8.4 Acid-Fracture Conductivity

8.5 Acid-Fractured-Well Performance

9 Additives for Acidizing Fluids: Their Functions, Interactions, & Limitations

9.1 Introduction

9.2 Corrosion Inhibitors

9.3 Surfactants

9.4 Clay Stabilizers

9.5 Impact of Additives on the Properties of Acids & Their Reactions With the Rock

9.6 Impact of Additives on Key Physical Properties of HCI

9.7 Compatibility Testing

9.8 Concluding Remarks

10 Acid Corrosion & Its Control

10.1 Introduction: The Importance of Corrosion Evaluation

10.2 Simulation of Well Conditions-High-Pressure/High-Temperature (HP/HT) Evaluation

10.3 Fluids & Additives

10.4 Corrosion Inhibitors & Intensifiers

10.5 Acidizing Additives

10.6 Metallurgy

10.7 Evaluation of Corrosion by Electrochemical Techniques

10.8 Special Applications

10.9 Concluding Remarks

11 Economics of Matrix Stimulation

11.1 Introduction

11.2 General Concepts of Acidizing Economics

11.3 Main Economic Criteria

11.4 NPV Characterization of Carbonate Acidizing

11.5 NPV Characterization of Sandstone Acidizing

12 Acidizing Safety & Quality & the Environment

12.1 Introduction

12.2 Current Practices

12.3 Acidizing Additives

12.4 Acidizing Equipment

12.5 Current Practice-Disadvantages

12.6 Continuous Mixing & Process Control

12.7 Advantages of Continuous Mixing/Process Control

12.8 Environmental Aspects of Continuous-Mix Acidizing

12.9 Field Implementation of Continuous Mix for Routine Matrix Acidizing

12.10 Obstacles to Continuous Mixing of Acid

12.11 Conclusions

Appendix 12A-Safety Checklist

Appendix 12B-Quality-Control Checklist

Quality Control During Rig Up of Equipment

Quality Control Before Pumping

Quality Control During Pumping

Quality Control After Pumping/During Flowback

Author Index

Subject Index

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