Jan Dirk Jansen
2017
368 pp.; Adobe® Digital Edition
ISBN: 978-1-61399-564-8
Society of Petroleum Engineers
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Nodal Analysis of Oil and Gas Production Systems
provides a modern view on the use of nodal analysis techniques to optimize the production from oil and gas wells. It covers multiphase flow through flow lines, wells, chokes and the near-well reservoir. It teaches the development of mathematical models for those system elements, and how to implement these in computer code. It explains the underlying physics, starting from first principles whenever possible, and reverting to empirical correlations whenever necessary. It covers the essential concepts in nodal analysis of a well system and aims at providing the readers with enough knowledge to use commercial nodal analysis software for more complex systems, explore the literature in this field, and expand their knowledge.

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Jan Dirk Jansen is a full professor of Reservoir Systems and Control at Delft University of Technology (TU Delft) in The Netherlands. Earlier, he spent many years with Shell International in research and operational positions in The Netherlands, Norway, and Nigeria. Jansen stayed four years in Shell’s Flow-IT group, which developed and maintained Shell’s in-house wellbore flow software package WePS, where he was particularly involved in coupling wellbore flow and reservoir simulation software for the design of smart well solutions. At TU Delft, Jansen teaches, among other courses, a class in production optimization using nodal analysis, which he also delivered at Stanford University during the academic year 2010–2011 when he was the Cox Visiting Professor in the Department of Energy Resources Engineering. Jansen’s current research interest at TU Delft is in the application of systems and control theory for the optimization and of wellbore flow and reservoir flow and mechanics. More information can be found on the web at www.tudelft.nl/jdjansen.

Preface ..............................................................................v

1 Introduction .......................................................................1

1.1 What Is Covered in This Chapter? 1

1.2 About This Book 1

1.3 Production Engineering 4

1.4 Oil and Gas Production Systems 7

1.5 System Models 10

1.6 Nodal Analysis 14

1.7 Questions 17

1.8 MATLAB Assignment: Nodal Analysis of a Simple System 18

 

2 Properties of Reservoir Fluids .....................................................23

2.1 What Is Covered in This Chapter? 23

2.2 Fluid Properties 23

2.3 Production Variables 27

2.4 Pressure/Temperature Phase Diagram 28

2.5 Equations of State 29

2.6 Oil Models 32

2.7 Fluid Property Calculations 37

2.8 Questions 38

2.9 MATLAB Assignment: Hydrocarbon Properties  40

 

3 Single-Phase Flow in Wells and Pipelines .............................................43

3.1 What Is Covered in This Chapter? 43

3.2 Governing Equations 43

3.3 Single-Phase Oil Flow 49

3.4 Single-Phase Gas Flow 51

3.5 Tubing Performance and Intake Curves 52

3.6 Flow in an Annular Geometry 56

3.7 Questions 57

3.8 MATLAB Assignment: Single-Phase Gas Flow  59

 

4 Multiphase Flow in Wells and Pipelines .................................................63

4.1 What Is Covered in This Chapter? 63

4.2 Multiphase Flow Concepts 63

4.3 Pressure Drop Analysis 68

4.4 Tubing Intake Curves 73

4.5 Lift Tables 79

4.6 Questions 80

4.7 MATLAB Assignment: Drift Flux 83

 

5 Flow Through Restrictions .............................................................85

5.1 What Is Covered in This Chapter? 85

5.2 Restrictions 85

5.3 Single-Phase Oil Flow 87

5.4 Single-Phase Gas Flow 91

5.5 Multiphase Flow: Empirical Models 101

5.6 Multiphase Flow: Theoretical Models 104

5.7 Questions 110

5.8 MATLAB Assignment: Choke Flow 113

 

6 Inflow Performance: The Basics .......................................................115

6.1 What Is Covered in This Chapter? 115

6.2 The Importance of Inflow Performance 115

6.3 Well Operation and Reservoir Flow Stages 117

6.4 Governing Equations 119

6.5 Single-Phase Oil Flow 122

6.6 The Skin Factor 128

6.7 Single-Phase Gas Flow 131

6.8 Multiphase Flow: Empirical Models 136

6.9 Multilayer Inflow Performance 140

6.10 Related Topics Not Considered in This Chapter 141

6.11 Questions 142

6.12 MATLAB Assignment: Commingled Production With a Smart Well 145

 

7 Inflow Performance: Further Topics .....................................................153

7.1 What Is Covered in This Chapter? 153

7.2 Two-Dimensional Reservoir Flow 153

7.3 Horizontal Wells, Part 1 164

7.4 Horizontal Wells, Part 2 174

7.5 Semi-Analytical Approach 180

7.6 Multiphase Flow: Theoretical Models 186

7.7 Related Topics Not Considered in This Chapter 193

7.8 Questions 193

7.9 MATLAB Assignment: Horizontal Well Inflow and Pressure Drop 195

 

8 Well Performance ....................................................................201

8.1 What Is Covered in This Chapter? 201

8.2 Analyzing Well Performance 201

8.3 Field Development Planning and Field Management 212

8.4 Artificial Lift 216

8.5 Related Topics Not Considered in This Chapter 220

8.6 Questions 221

8.7 MATLAB Assignment: Well Performance 229

 

Appendix A: SI Units and Field Units .....................................................233

A-1 Conversion Factors 233

A-2 SI Prefixes 233

A-3 Standard Conditions 233

A-4 Pitfalls in Unit Conversion 233

 

Appendix B: Fluid Properties and Correlations .....................................239

B-1 Fluid Properties 239

B-2 Oil Correlations 241

B-3 Gas Correlations 247

B-4 Water Properties 254

 

Appendix C: Wellbore Surveying .......................................................257

C-1 Coordinates 257

C-2 Survey Evaluation 257

C-3 Numerical Implementation 260

 

Appendix D: Numerical Methods ........................................................263

D-1 Root Finding 263

D-2 Differential Equations 268

 

Appendix E: Multiphase Flow Correlations ..........................................271

E-1 Hagedorn and Brown 271

E-2 Mukherjee and Brill 278

E-3 Drift Flux Models 284

 

Appendix F: Relative Permeabilities ........................................291

F-1 Physics 291

F-2 Corey Expressions 293

 

Appendix G: Answers to Questions ..................................................297

G-1 Answers for Chapter 1, Introduction 297

G-2 Answers for Chapter 2, Properties of Reservoir Fluids 299

G-3 Answers for Chapter 3, Single-Phase Flow in Wells and Pipelines 303

G-4 Answers for Chapter 4, Multiphase Flow in Wells and Pipelines 308

G-5 Answers for Chapter 5, Flow Through Restrictions 314

G-6 Answers for Chapter 6, Inflow Performance: The Basics 318

G-7 Answers for Chapter 7, Inflow Performance: Further Topics 324

G-8 Answers for Chapter 8, Well Performance 331

 

Appendix H: MATLAB Files ...........................................................339

H-1 Guidance for Use 339

H-2 Conversion Factors 340

H-3 Survey 343

H-4 Fluid Properties 343

H-5 Pipe Flow 344

H-6 Lift Tables 344

H-7 Choke Flow 345

H-8 Reservoir Flow 345

H-9 Systems 346

H-10 Questions 346

H-11 Graphical User Interface 346

H-12 Demo 346

 

Nomenclature ...........................................................................347

Glossary ...............................................................................355

References .........................................................................357

Index ..........................................................................363

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