Fundamentals of Enhanced Oil Recovery
Fundamentals of Enhanced Oil Recovery
Larry W. Lake, Russell Johns, Bill Rossen & Gary Pope
Society of Petroleum Engineers
List Price USD 310
Member Price USD 155

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A revision of the 1989 classic, Enhanced Oil Recovery by Larry Lake, this text, Fundamentals of Enhanced Oil Recovery, retains the original work's emphasis on fractional flow theory and phase behavior to explain enhanced oil recovery (EOR) processes. There is additional coverage on cutting edge (or current) topics, such as low-salinity EOR, steam-assisted gravity drainage, and expanded coverage on thermodynamics and foam EOR. With its frequent reinforcement of two fundamental EOR principles, lowering the mobility ratio and increasing the capillary number, it is an excellent resource for undergraduate classes.

About the Authors

Larry W. Lake is a professor in the Department of Petroleum and Geosystems Engineering at The University of Texas at Austin. He holds BSE and PhD degrees in chemical engineering from Arizona State University and Rice University, respectively. Lake is the author or co-author of more than 100 technical papers and four textbooks and is the editor of three bound volumes. He has served on the SPE Board of Directors, received the 1996 Anthony F. Lucas Gold Medal, and the DeGolyer Distinguished Service Award in 2002, and has been a member of the National Academy of Engineering since 1997.


Russell T. Johns is the Victor and Anna Mae Beghini Professor of Petroleum and Natural Gas Engineering at Penn State University. Previously, he was a faculty member at The University of Texas at Austin from 1995 to 2010. He holds a BS degree in electrical engineering from Northwestern University and MS and PhD degrees in petroleum engineering from Stanford University. He has published more than 200 technical papers, reports, and books and received the SPE Cedric K. Ferguson Medal in 1993 (for his research on the combined condensing/vaporizing gas-drive process), as well as the SPE Distinguished Member Award in 2009. From 2002-2004, Johns served as co-Executive Editor for SPE Reservoir Evaluation & Engineering and is currently an associate editor for SPE Journal. He is also director of the Gas Flooding consortium and co-director of the Unconventional Natural Resources consortium in the EMS Energy Institute at Penn State University.


William R. Rossen is a professor of reservoir engineering at Delft University of Technology. His research interests include foams for EOR, sweep efficiency in gas EOR, and modeling flow in porous media. In 2002, he received the Distinguished Achievement Award for Petroleum Engineering Faculty from SPE, and he is a Distinguished Member. In 2012, Rossen was named an IOR Pioneer at the SPE/ DOE Symposium on Improved Oil Recovery. In 2011, he was named Best Instructor at the Delft University of Technology. He holds a BS degree from MIT and a PhD degree from the University of Minnesota, both in chemical engineering.


Gary A. Pope is the Texaco Centennial Chair in Petroleum Engineering at The University of Texas at Austin, where he has taught since 1977. His teaching and research are in the areas of EOR, reservoir engineering, natural gas engineering, and reservoir simulation. Pope holds a BS degree from Oklahoma State University and a PhD degree from Rice University, both in chemical engineering. His SPE awards include the Honorary Member and Distinguished Member awards, the IOR Pioneer award, the Anthony F. Lucas Gold Medal, the John Franklin Carll award, the Distinguished Achievement Award for Petroleum Engineering Faculty, and the Reservoir Engineering Award. Pope was elected to the National Academy of Engineering in 1999.

Table of Contents


1. Defining Enhanced Oil Recovery

1.1 Introduction to EOR

1.2 The Need for EOR

1.3 Incremental Oil

1.4 Category Comparisons

1.5 Summary

1.6 Units and Notation

2. Basic Equations for Fluid Flow in Permeable

2.1 Mass Conservation

2.2 Definitions and Constitutive Equations for
Isothermal Flow

2.3 Energy-Balance Equations

2.4 Entropy-Balance Equations

2.5 Special Cases of the Strong Form

2.6 Overall Balances

2.7 Summary

3. Petrophysics and Petrochemistry

3.1 Porosity and Permeability

3.2 Capillary Pressure

3.3 Relative Permeability

3.4 Residual Phase Saturations

3.5 Three-Phase Effects

3.6 Permeable-Media Chemistry

3.7 Summary

4. Phase Behavior and Fluid Properties

4.1 Fundamentals of Phase-Equilibrium


4.2 Phase Behavior of Pure Components

4.3 Phase Behavior of Mixtures

4.4 Ternary Diagrams

4.5 Quantitative Representation of Two-Phase


4.6 Concluding Remarks

5. Displacement Efficiency

5.1 Definitions

5.2 Immiscible Displacement

5.3 Dissipation in Immiscible Displacements

5.4 Ideal Miscible Displacements

5.5 Dissipation in Miscible Displacements

5.6 Generalization of Fractional-Flow Theory

5.7 Application to Three-Phase Flow

5.8 Modeling EOR Processes With Two-Phase

Fractional-Flow Theory

5.9 Concluding Remarks

6. Volumetric Sweep Efficiency

6.1 Definitions

6.2 Areal Sweep Efficiency

6.3 Measures of Heterogeneity

6.4 Displacements With No Vertical


6.5 Vertical Equilibrium

6.6 Special Cases of Vertical Equilibrium

6.7 VE Summary

6.8 Instability Phenomena

6.9 Gravity Segregation in Gas EOR

6.10 Summary

7. Solvent Methods
7.1 General Discussion of Solvent Flooding
7.2 Solvent Properties
7.3 Solvent and Crude-Oil Properties
7.4 Solvent-Water Properties
7.5 Solvent Phase-Behavior Experiments
7.6 Dispersion and Slug Processes
7.7 Two-Phase Flow in Solvent Floods
7.8 Solvent Floods With Viscious Fingering
7.9 Solvent Flooding and Residual Oil Saturation
7.10 Estimating Field Recovery
7.11 Concluding Remarks
8. Polymer Methods
8.1 The Polymers
8.2 Polymer Properties
8.3 Profile Control
8.4 Polymer Degradation
8.5 Fractional Flow in Polymer Floods
8.6 Elements of Polymer-Flood Design
8.7 Field Results
8.8 Concluding Remarks
9. Surfactant Methods
9.1 The Processes
9.2 The Surfactants and Surfactant Selection
9.3 Surfactant/Oil/Bring Phase Behavior
9.4 Nonideal Effects
9.5 Phase Behavior and IFT
9.6 Other Phase Properties
9.7 High-Capillary-Number Relative Permeabilities
9.8 Alkaline/Surfactant Flooding
9.9 Surfactant Formation
9.10 Displacement Mechanisms
9.11 Rock-Fluid Interactions
9.12 Fractional-Flow Theory in SP and ASP Floods
9.13 Typical Production Responses
9.14 Designing SP/ASP Floods
9.15 Concluding Remarks
10. Foam-Enhanced Oil Recovery
10.1 Introduction
10.2 Nature of Foam in Permeable Media
10.3 Mobility of Gas and Water in Foam
10.4 Strong Foams in Two Regimes
10.5 Foam Propagation
10.6 Effect of OIl and Wettability on Foam
10.7 Modeling Foam Flow: Mechanistic Foam Models
10.8 Modeling Foam Flow: Local Steady-State Models
10.9 Summary
11. Thermal Methods
11.1 Process Variations
11.2 Physical Properties
11.3 Fractional Flow in Thermal Displacements
11.4 Heat Losses From Equipment and Wellbores
11.5 Heat Losses to Overburden and Underburden
11.6 Steamdrives
11.7 Steam Soak
11.8 In-Situ Combustion
11.9 SAGD
11.10 Concluding Remarks
Author Index
Subject Index





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