Rashid Hasan and Shah Kabir
2018
403 pp.; Adobe® Digital Edition
Textbook
ISBN: 978-1-61399-628-7
Society of Petroleum Engineers
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Addressing both steady and unsteady-state fluid flow and related heat-transfer problems, the Second Edition of Fluid Flow and Heat Transfer in Wellbores strikes the perfect balance between theory and practice to aid understanding. Three new chapters on application of theory have been added and include probing pressure traverse in various wellbore multiphase fluid-flow situations, estimating flow rates from temperature data, translating off-bottom transient-pressure data to that at the datum depth, and a detailed discussion around newly discovered wellbore safety and integrity issues. Fundamental aspects of drilling, fluid circulation, and production operations form the foundation of this update of the 2002 original publication.

A. Rashid Hasan is a professor of petroleum engineering at Texas A&M University (TAMU). Before joining TAMU, Hasan headed the Chemical Engineering Departments at the University of Minnesota, Duluth (UMD) and the University of North Dakota (UND), Grand Forks, and directed UND’s doctoral program in Energy Engineering. He has also worked with NASA Glenn on various aspects of multiphase flow and thermohydraulic transients. Hasan is an expert in the areas of production engineering, focusing on modeling complex transport processes in various elements of petroleum production systems. He is one of the pioneers in modeling steady and transient transport of heat and momentum in wellbores. Hasan holds a PhD degree (1979) from University of Waterloo, Canada.


C. Shah Kabir 
is the proprietor of CS Kabir Consulting in Houston. With more than 40 years of experience in the oil and gas industry with Dome, Arco, Schlumberger, Chevron, and Hess, he has expertise in pressure- and rate-transient analysis, wellbore fluid- and heat-flow modeling, reservoir engineering, and testing and performance forecasting in unconventional reservoirs. His experience includes knowledge of major oil provinces, including those in North America, North Sea, Middle East, and the Far East. He holds a master’s degree (1976) in chemical engineering from University of Calgary, Canada. 

Chapter 1 – Overview 1
1.1 Single-Phase Flow 1
1.2 Flow in Nonisothermal Systems 4
1.3 Flow in Annulus 5
1.4 Flow in Horizontal Wells 6
Summary 7
Nomenclature 7

Chapter 2 – Multiphase Flow: Introduction 9
2.1 Introduction 9
2.2 Concepts and Definitions 10
2.3 Method of Analysis 12
2.4 Homogeneous Flow Models 13
2.5 Separated Flow Models 14
Summary 21
Nomenclature 21

Chapter 3 – Multiphase Flow: Mechanistic Models for Vertical Wells 23
3.1 Introduction 23
3.2 Flow Pattern Delineation 25
3.3 Liquid Holdup and Pressure Drop 32
3.4 Discussion 41
Summary 45
Nomenclature 46

Chapter 4 – Multiphase Flow: Deviated and Horizontal Wells and Other Systems 49
4.1 Introduction 49
4.2 Flow in Deviated Wells ? 49
4.3 Flow in Horizontal Pipes and Wells 64
4.4 Modeling Flow in Nonconventional Situations 74
Summary 81
Nomenclature 81

Chapter 5 – Multiphase Flow: Field Applications 85
5.1 Overall Modeling Approach in Gas/Liquid Flow 85
5.2 Two-Phase Flow in Oil Wells 88
5.3 Two-Phase Flow in Gas/Condensate Wells 91
5.4 Liquid Loading in Gas Wells 99
5.5 Estimating Flow Rates With Multiphase Choke Correlations 105
Summary 109
Nomenclature 110

Chapter 6 – Wellbore Heat Transport 113
6.1 Introduction 113
6.2 Formation Temperature Distribution 114
6.3 Energy Balance for Wellbore Fluid 117
6.4 Wellbore Fluid Temperature 120
Summary 126
Nomenclature 127

Chapter 7 – Heat Transport: Field Applications 135
7.1 Introduction 135
7.2 Rate Estimation With Steady- and Unsteady-State Temperature/Pressure Data 135
7.3 Thermal Effects Influencing Pressure Response in Off-Bottom Gauges 146
7.4 Geothermal Well Modeling 155
7.5 Transient Temperature in Oil Reservoirs With Large Drawdowns 160
Summary 164
Nomenclature 164
Appendix 7-A Flow Rate Estimation From Temperature Data 166
Appendix 7-B Depth-Dependent Fluid Temperature With Superposition 168
Appendix 7-C Flow Rate Estimation for Slug and Closed-Chamber Tests 171
Appendix 7-D Transient Temperature Model During Water Injection ? 173
Appendix 7-E Example Bottomhole Pressure Calculations for a Geothermal Well 176
Appendix 7-F Comprehensive Energy Balance for Transient Temperature in Oil Reservoirs 179
Appendix 7-G Input Data for Model Validation 182

Chapter 8 – Wellbore Temperature Profiles in Multiple Strings 185
8.1 Introduction 185
8.2 Production Through the Tubing and Annulus 186
8.3 Production Through Two Tubing Strings 188
8.4 Production and Injection Through a Common Wellbore 190
Summary 191
Nomenclature 191
Appendix 8-A Working Equations for Multiple-String Completions 192

Chapter 9 – Transient Fluid and Heat Flows in Wellbores 197
9.1 Introduction 197
9.2 Modeling Single-Phase Gas Flow 198
9.3 Modeling Single-Phase Oil Flow 204
9.4 Modeling Two-Phase Gas/Oil Flow 210
9.5 Analytical Wellbore Transient Temperature Modeling 213
Summary 215
Nomenclature 215
Appendix 9-A Finite-Difference Equations for Wellbore Fluid Temperature 217
Appendix 9-B Derivation of Analytical Transient Fluid Temperature Models 220

Chapter 10 – Applications of Transient Heat Flows in Assessing Well Integrity 225
10.1 Introduction 225
10.2 Annular Pressure Buildup 225
10.3 Sustained Casing Pressure in an Annulus 230
10.4 Integrity Testing of Gas Lift Valves 236
Summary 246
Nomenclature 246
Appendix 10-A Annular Pressure Buildup Formulation in Multiple Annuli 249
Appendix 10-B Solution of Transient Formulation for Annular Pressure Buildup 252
Appendix 10-C Sustained Casing Pressure Model Derivation and Analytical Solution 254

Chapter 11 – Drilling Operations 257
11.1 Fluid Circulation Temperature 257
11.2 Static Formation Temperature 268
11.3 Well Blowout 281
Summary 295
Nomenclature 295
Appendix 11-A Models Related to Drilling Operations 297
Appendix 11-B Constants for the Variable Heat-Flux Model 299
Appendix 11-C Transient Heat Transfer From Mud to Formation 300
Appendix 11-D Oil PVT Properties for Estimating Maximum Discharge 303

Chapter 12 – Production Operations and Flow Assurance 305
12.1 Systems Analysis 305
12.2 Temperature Profiles in Gas Lift Wells 312
12.3 Wellbore Steam/Water Flow and Surface Metering 321
12.4 Combating Wellbore Solids Deposition 329
Summary 341
Nomenclature 342
Appendix 12-A Derivation of Superposition Equations 344
Appendix 12-B Solution of Equation 12.14 in Gas Lift 346
Appendix 12-C Solids Deposition Models 348

Chapter 13 – Production Logging 355
13.1 Introduction 355
13.2 Spinner Flowmeter Production Log Interpretation 355
13.3 Flow Pattern Maps for Production Log Analysis 368
13.4 Rate Estimation From Temperature Surveys 372
13.5 Discussion 375

Summary 376
Nomenclature 377
References 379
Index 397

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