Don W. Green and G. Paul Wilhite
2018
Softcover
Textbook
ISBN: 978-1-61399-494-8
Society of Petroleum Engineers

Description 

Instock Mid-January.  If you would like to be alerted when available, email books@spe.org. 

Building on the comprehensive, fundamental mechanisms and mathematical computations detailed in the First Edition, the new Second Edition of Enhanced Oil Recovery presents the latest insights into the applications of EOR processes, including 

      -Field-scale thermal-recovery such as steam-assisted gravity drainage and cyclic steam stimulation
      -Field-scale polymer flooding including horizontal wells
      -Field-scale miscible-displacement processes such as CO2 miscible flooding
      -Laboratory-scale chemical flooding in the development and testing of surfactant formulations 

An invaluable tool for petroleum engineering students, Enhanced Oil Recovery also serves as an important resource for those practicing oil recovery in the field or engaged in the design and operation of commercial projects involving enhanced-or improved-oil-recovery processes. A prior understanding of basic petrophysics, fluid properties, and material balance is recommended.

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Waterflooding
G. Paul Willhite

Don W. Green is Emeritus Distinguished Professor of Chemical and Petroleum Engineering at The University of Kansas (KU). He holds a B.S. in petroleum engineering from the University of Tulsa, and M.S. and PhD degrees in chemical engineering from the University of Oklahoma. He worked for Continental Oil Company before joining KU in 1964. At KU he was chair of his department from 1970-1974 and 1996-2000. He was co-director of the Tertiary Oil Recovery Project (TORP) with Professor G. Paul Willhite from 1974 to 2007.  Dr. Green has won numerous teaching awards at KU, including the Chancellor's Club Career Teaching Award.  He was an SPE Distinguished Lecturer, recipient of the SPE Distinguished Achievement Award for Petroleum Engineering Faculty, the Improved Oil Recovery (IOR) Pioneer Award and was named an Honorary Member of SPE in 2007.  He is also a Fellow of the AIChE.

G. Paul Willhite is the Ross H. Forney Distinguished Professor of Chemical and Petroleum Engineering at the University of Kansas (KU) where he has been a member of the faculty since 1969. Before joining the faculty, he worked in the Production Research Division of Continental Oil Company. Willhite holds a B.S. degree from Iowa State University and a PhD degree from Northwestern University both in chemical engineering. At KU, he co-founded TORP with Professor Don W. Green, serving as co-director from 1974-2009.  He was chair of the department from 1988-1996, interim chair from 2003-2004. He is the author of the SPE textbook, Waterflooding. Willhite received several SPE Awards including the Lester C. Uren Award, John Franklin Carll Award, IOR Pioneer Award and was elected an Honorary Member of SPE-AIME in 2012.  Willhite was elected to the National Academy of Engineering in 2006.  

TABLE OF CONTENTS

About the Authors
Preface

Chapter 1 – Introduction to EOR Processes
1.1 Definition of EOR 1
1.2 Target Oil Resource for EOR Processes
1.3 Idealized Characteristics of an EOR Process
1.4 General Classifications and Description of EOR Processes
1.5 Potential of the Different Processes
1.6 Screening Criteria for Process Applicability
1.7 Organization of the Textbook

Chapter 2 – Microscopic Displacement of Fluids in a Reservoir
2.1 Introduction
2.2 Capillary Forces
2.3 Viscous Forces
2.4 Phase Trapping
2.5 Mobilization of Trapped Phases—Alteration of Viscous/Capillary Force Ratio
2.6 Mobilization of Trapped Phases—Role of Phase Behavior

Chapter 3 – Displacement in Linear Systems
3.1 Introduction
3.2 Waterflood Performance—Frontal-Advance Equations
3.3 Viscous Waterflood in a Linear System
3.4 Viscous Waterflood in a Linear System Initially at Interstitial Water Saturation
3.5 Chemical Flooding in a Linear System
3.6 Applications of the Chemical Flooding Model
3.7 Displacement of Slugs
3.8 Dispersion During Miscible Displacement
3.9 Viscous Fingering—Instability in Displacement Fronts

Chapter 4 – Macroscopic Displacement of Fluids in a Reservoir
4.1 Introduction
4.2 Volumetric Displacement Efficiency and Material Balance
4.3 Volumetric Displacement Efficiency Expressed as the Product of Areal and Vertical Displacement Efficiencies
4.4 Definition and Discussion of Mobility Ratio
4.5 Areal Displacement Efficiency
4.6 Vertical Displacement Efficiency
4.7 Volumetric Displacement Efficiency

Chapter 5 – Mobility-Control Processes
5.1 Introduction
5.2 Process Description
5.3 Physical and Chemical Characteristics of Polymers
5.4 Flow of Polymers Through Porous Media
5.5 Polymer-Augmented Waterflood
5.6 In-Situ Permeability Modification
5.7 Field Experience
5.8 Mobility Control To Maintain Chemical Slug Integrity
5.9 Foam as an EOR Agent
5.10 WAG Process

Chapter 6 – Miscible Displacement Processes
6.1 Introduction
6.2 General Description of Miscible Displacement
6.3 Principles of Phase Behavior Related to Miscibility
6.4 FCM Process
6.5 MCM Process
6.6 Experimental Verification of the Role of Phase Behavior in Miscible Displacement
6.7 Measurement and Prediction of the MMP or MME in a Multiple-Contact Process
6.8 Fluid Properties in Miscible Displacement
6.9 Factors Affecting Microscopic and Macroscopic Displacement Efficiency of Miscible Processes
6.10 Miscible Displacement Performance Modeling
6.11 Design Procedures and Criteria
6.12 Field Experience

Chapter 7 – Chemical Flooding
7.1 Introduction
7.2 Description of the Micellar/Polymer Process
7.3 Surfactants
7.4 Phase Behavior of Microemulsions
7.5 Phase Behavior and IFT
7.6 Variables Affecting Phase Behavior and IFT
7.7 Viscosity and Density of Microemulsions
7.8 Displacement Mechanisms
7.9 Surfactant Loss From Rock/Fluid Interactions and Phase Partitioning
7.10 Modeling Chemical Flood Displacement
7.11 Advances in Surfactant Technology
7.12 Design Procedures and Criteria
7.13 Field Experience
7.14 Alkaline Flooding

Chapter 8 – Thermal Recovery Processes
8.1 Introduction
8.2 Heat Losses During Steam Injection
8.3 Cyclic Steam Stimulation
8.4 Reservoir Heating by Steam Injection
8.5 Estimation of Oil Recovery From Steamdrive
8.6 Production of Bitumen by Steam Injection
8.7 In-Situ Combustion
8.8 Comparison of Steam and In-Situ Combustion

Appendix A – Formation of a Viscous Shock
Formation of the Viscous Shock
Following the Oil-Bank Shock by Front Tracking
Following the Oil-Bank Shock by Material Balance

Appendix B – Error-Function Tabulation

Appendix C – Auxiliary Programs To Compute Location of Polymer Bank When Polymer Slug Is Displaced by Drive Water
Program Descriptions

Appendix D – Computer Programs
Stalkup Displacement Models

Appendix E – Fluid and Rock Property Data and Supporting Data for Thermal Recovery Calculations
Water
Oil
Physical-Property Correlations for Crude Oil
Reservoir Rocks
Unconsolidated Oil Sands
Consolidated Rocks
Air

Appendix F – Programs To Evaluate Functions Derived From Marx and Langenheim Model
G(tD)
G1(tD)

Appendix G – An Introduction to Gravity Drainage

Appendix H – Solution to Example 8.7—Cyclic Steam Stimulation of a Gravity-Drainage Reservoir
Estimation of Heated Radius

Appendix I – Development of Constant-Vertical-Velocity Model for Gravity Override
G3(tDv)
Gv(tDv) 869
G4(tD/2)
Ge(tDv,tDv1)
G5(tDv,tDv1)
G6(tDv,tDv1)
G7(tDv,tDv1)
G8(tDv,tDv1)

Author Index
Subject Index

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