Using an interdisciplinary approach, this new book offers a basic yet comprehensive introduction to the completion and reservoir engineering aspects of hydraulic fracture stimulation. The book is divided into three sections. Section 1 covers the design and placement of a hydraulic fracture stimulation; topics include the basics of the hydraulic fracturing process, stress issues, fracture geometry, controls on generated length and width, fluid and proppant selection, quality control, and quality assurance. Section 2 introduces the use of dynamic data to characterize the in-place hydraulic fracture, outlining the methods of pressure-transient analysis for both pressure-drawdown and pressure-buildup tests. The discussion includes effective wellbore radius, effective fracture half-length, equivalent skin, and their relationships; simulated and field examples illustrate the basic analysis procedure and many common pitfalls. The final section covers the prediction of long-term rate performance and recoverable volumes. Three approaches are discussed: rate-decline type curves, analytical and semianalytical methods, and numerical simulation. Essential elements are given for each and illustrated with field examples.
Design and Appraisal of Hydraulic Fractures is a valuable reference for all members of the geotechnical and surface engineering communities who need to understand the important issues around and the full impact of hydraulic fracture stimulation on well performance.
About the Authors
Jack R. Jones began his career in 1982 at Amoco's Tulsa Research Center, while completing a PhD degree in petroleum engineering at the University of Tulsa. His work at Amoco focused on problems in well testing, gas reservoir engineering, hydraulic fracture evaluation, petrophysics, and reservoir simulation. Since 1998, Jones has divided his time working for BP Trinidad in Port of Spain and BP Canada in Calgary, executing various aspects of a number of different gas-field developments. Presently, he holds the position of reservoir engineering technical advisor in BP Canada's Calgary office. Jones is the coauthor of 25 papers and has served on a number of SPE technical committees.
Larry K. Britt is a hydraulic fracturing consultant for NSI Technologies and manager of its rock mechanics lab at the University of Tulsa. His experience includes the optimization, design, and execution of fracture stimulations and integrated field studies throughout the world. Before joining NSI, Britt worked for Amoco Production Company for nearly 20 years; during the last 6 years with Amoco, he was a fracturing team leader at Amoco’s Technology Center in Tulsa. Britt has written more than 25 technical papers on reservoir management, pressure transient analysis, and hydraulic fracturing. He holds a BS degree in geological engineering and a professional degree in petroleum engineering from the Missouri School of Science and Technology, where he is an adjunct professor in the Petroleum Engineering Department and a member of the university and Industry Advisory boards. Britt has served as an SPE Distinguished Lecturer, a member of the JPT Editorial Committee, and on numerous SPE Forum Series committees.