Wayne W. Frenier
2018
Softcover
Textbook
ISBN: 978-1-61399-496-2
Society of Petroleum Engineers

Description 

Instock January 12th.  If you would like to be alerted when available, email books@spe.org.

Providing a comprehensive overview of the science and technology behind maintaining pipelines, Chemical and Mechanical Methods of Pipeline Integrity was written for oil and gas professionals responsible for ensuring consistent product delivery.  Wayne Frenier details in this new book a variety of pipeline environments and then explores the challenges that require chemical or mechanical intervention.  Internal corrosion and the corrosion mechanisms that affect pipeline and facility operations are included in the discussion along with a short introduction to Integrity Management (IM) processes.   With a strong focus on the connections between the production of hydrocarbons, production facilities, and the pipelines that take the products to the refineries, Chemical and Mechanical Methods of Pipeline Integrity was written for a general technical audience with a basic understanding of chemistry.

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Wayne W. Frenier retired from Schlumberger after more than 30 years of research and development activities.  Frenier is the author of 33 US patents, numerous technical articles and five books.  His recent SPE books include Formation, Removal and Inhibition of Inorganic Scale in the Oilfield Environment (with Murtaza Ziauddin), Organic Deposits in Oil and Gas Production (with Murtaza Ziauddin and Ramachandran Venkatesan) and Chemistry for Enhancing the Production of Oil and Gas (with Murtaza Ziauddin).  Wayne is an Emeritus member of the American Chemical Society and a Life Member of NACE International, having been awarded its Fellow Honor.  Wayne currently performs consulting services in the energy industry.

Table of Contents

Foreword vii
Preface ix
Acknowledgments xv

1 Introduction to the Technology of Flow and Integrity Management 1
1.1 Description of Pipelines and Operating Environments 2
1.2 Need for Chemical and Mechanical Enhancements to Pipelines and Facilities 4
1.3 Economic and Market-Related Forces Affecting Pipeline Maintenance 5
1.3.1 General Economic Issues for Oilfield Treatments 5
1.3.2 Pipeline-Specific Economic Considerations 6
1.4 Review of the Physics and Chemistry of Pipeline Interventions 7
1.4.1 Pipeline Materials for Construction and Pressure Requirements 7
1.4.2 Fluid Mechanics and the Effects of Fluids and Phases on Pipeline Operations 9
1.4.3 Viscosity and Rheology of Fluids 17
1.4.4 Thermodynamics and Kinetics of Pipeline-Fouling Reactions 21
1.4.5 Surface Chemistry 24
1.4.6 Testing of Pipeline Fluids 28
1.5 Summary and Lessons Learned 29

2 From the Well to the Consumer 31
2.1 Description of Well Production Fluids Entering the Pipeline System 31
2.1.1 Aqueous Phases 31
2.1.2 Hydrocarbon Liquids 33
2.1.3 Gaseous Phases 33
2.1.4 Solids 34
2.1.5 Emulsions, Foams, and Solid Dispersions 34
2.2 Effects of the Life Cycle and Reservoir Type on Pipeline Maintenance 34
2.2.1 Life Cycle of a Hydrocarbon-Producing Reservoir 34
2.2.2 Conventional Reservoirs of Oil and Gas 38
2.2.3 Unconventional Reservoirs of Oil and Gas 39
2.3 Problems Anticipated in Different Areas of Pipeline-Connected Systems 44
2.3.1 Gathering Lines and Wastewater Lines 45
2.3.2 Surface and Subsurface Facilities 46
2.3.3 Water-System-Related Issues 60
2.3.4 Summary of Problems in Surface/Subsurface Treatment Plants 62
2.3.5 Crude Oil Trunk and Gas Transmission Pipelines 63
2.4 Planning for Pipeline/Facility Reliability and Flow Assurance 64
2.5 Summary and Lessons Learned 67

3 Corrosion Processes in Pipelines and Facilities 69
3.1 Fundamentals of Corrosion Chemistry 70
3.1.1 Effects of Pipeline Metallurgy on Corrosion Processes 72
3.1.2 Effect of Dissolved Salts and the Hydrocarbon Phases 76
3.1.3 Carbon Dioxide Corrosion 79
3.1.4 Hydrogen Sulfide Corrosion and Various Cracking Conditions 81
3.1.5 Oxygen Corrosion 84
3.1.6 Organic Acid Corrosion 85
3.1.7 Microbiologically Influenced Corrosion 85
3.1.8 Corrosion From Cleaning/Stimulation Fluids 89
3.2 Consequences of Corrosion: Manifestations in Pipelines 91
3.2.1 Top-of-Line Corrosion 91
3.2.2 Localized Corrosion 95
3.2.3 Erosion/Corrosion and Impingement Damage 99
3.2.4 Summary of Pipeline Corrosion Locations and Manifestation Types 102
3.3 Corrosion Processes in Facilities 102
3.4 Corrosion and Inhibitor Testing 104
3.4.1 Common Methods for Corrosion Rate Determination 104
3.4.2 Specific Laboratory Test Methods for Studying Corrosion and Inhibition 112
3.4.3 Physical and Chemical Examination of Surfaces 124
3.4.4 Comparison of Laboratory Tests 126
3.4.5 Field Monitoring of Corrosion Processes 127
3.4.6 Placement of Probes and Coupons for Maximum Effectiveness 135
3.5 Introduction to Integrity Management 136
3.5.1 Short History of Integrity Management Processes 136
3.5.2 Preview and Nomenclature of Direct Assessment 139
3.5.3 US State Regulations 139
3.5.4 US Federal Inspection Regulations 142
3.5.5 Worldwide Pipeline Safety Regulations and Practices 144
3.5.6 Summary of Standards for Corrosion Assessments and Safe Operation 146
3.6 Corrosion Prediction and Assessment Processes 147
3.6.1 Methods of Corrosion Prediction 147
3.6.2 Internal Corrosion Direct Assessment and Risk Assessment Methods 152
3.7 Summary and Lessons Learned 158
3.8 Best Practices and Case Histories for Corrosion Control 159
3.8.1 Monitoring and Controlling Corrosion in an Aging Sour-Gas-Gathering System: A Nine-Year Case History (Nelson et al. 2007) 159
3.8.2 Top-of-Line Corrosion in Multiphase Gas Lines: A Case History (Gunaltun et al. 1999) 159
3.8.3 Special Issues Related to the Application of Direct Assessment (Klechka 2009) 159
3.8.4 Internal Corrosion Direct Assessment of Buried Steel Pipeline in Chinese Oil Industry (Qimin and Guibai 2008) 160

4 Chemistry of Product Flow Impairment in Pipelines and Facilities 161
4.1 Why and Where Inorganic Scale and Organic Deposits Form 162
4.2 Inorganic Scale Formation 163
4.2.1 Mineral Precipitation Scales 163
4.2.2 Corrosion Product Scales 172
4.3 Organic Deposits 173
4.3.1 Waxes (Paraffins) 173
4.3.2 Asphaltenes 174
4.3.3 Naphthenates 175
4.3.4 Clathrate Gas Hydrates 177
4.4 Mechanism of Formation of Mixed Deposits in Pipelines and Facilities 179
4.4.1 Overlapping Precipitation Regimes 179
4.4.2 Pressure-Induced Deposits 180
4.4.3 Alkaline Earth Scale and Organic Solids 181
4.4.4 Corrosion-Triggered Mixed Deposits Including “Black Powder” 181
4.5 Deposits Found in Facilities 187
4.6 Emulsions, Foams, and High-Viscosity Causes of Flow Problems 188
4.6.1 Emulsions 188
4.6.2 Foams 191
4.6.3 High Viscosity and Turbulent Flow 191
4.7 Summary and Lessons Learned 191
4.8 Best Practices and Case Studies of Flow Assurance Controlin Pipelines 192
4.8.1 Review of Issues Associated with Inhibition of Scale-Deposit-Covered Pipelines (Turgoose et al. 2006) 192
4.8.2 A Case History of Heavy-Oil Separation in Northern Alberta: A Singular Challenge of Demulsifier Optimization and Application (Wylde et al. 2010) 192
4.8.3 Best Practice for Organic Deposit Removal(Montgomery et al. 1996) 193
4.8.4 Multichemical Application Case History (Shepherd et al. 2012) 194

5 Mechanical Methods of Assessment and Enhancement of Pipeline Operations 195
5.1 Introduction to Pigs, Scrapers, and In-Line Inspection Devices 195
5.2 Types and Uses of In-Line Pipeline Devices 199
5.2.1 Utility Pigs199
5.2.2 Pig Application Problems and Solutions 202
5.2.3 In-Line Operations Chemical Issues and Solutions 207
5.2.4 Selection and Application of Mechanical Pigs 210
5.3 Hydrostatic Pressure Testing 214
5.3.1 General Procedures for Performing Hydrostatic Pressure Tests 215
5.3.2 Water Quality and Wet Layup 216
5.3.3 Drying the Line and Dry Layup 217
5.4 In-Line Inspection Tools 218
5.4.1 Introduction to In-Line Inspection Technologies 218
5.4.2 Geometry and Mapping Devices 222
5.4.3 Magnetic Flux Leakage Technologies 224
5.4.4 Ultrasonic Technique Method 227
5.4.5 Eddy Current In-Line Inspection Methods 230
5.4.6 Miniaturized In-Line Inspection Sensors 231
5.4.7 Cathodic Protection (CP) In-Line Tools 233
5.4.8 Comparison/Selection of In-Line Inspection Methods and Data Analysis 235
5.4.9 Analyses of In-Line Inspection Data and Tool Performance 238
5.4.10 Summary of In-Line Inspection Developments 243
5.5 In-Line Handling Equipment and Other Devices 245
5.5.1 Traps (Receivers) and Launchers 245
5.5.2 Pig Indicators and Tracking Devices 247
5.5.3 Coiled Tubing for Conveying Tools Into Pipelines 249
5.6 Summary and Lessons Learned 251
5.7 Best Practices and Case Studies for Mechanical Management of Pipelines 251
5.7.1 Unpiggable Pipelines: What a Challenge for In-Line Inspection! (Schmidt 2004) 251
5.7.2 Case Study: Bayu Undan Pipeline and Darwin Liquefied Natural Gas Project (Weatherford 2009) 251
5.7.3 Single-Trip Pigging of Gas Lines During Late Field Life (Mandke et al. 2002) 251
5.7.4 In-Line Inspection on an Unprecedented Scale (Brockhaus et al. 2015) 252

6 Chemical and Mechanical Treatments To Enhance/Maintain Pipeline Operations 253
6.1 Corrosion Inhibitors and Inhibition Mechanisms 253
6.1.1 Review of Production and Pipeline Corrosion Inhibitor Mechanisms 257
6.1.2 “Sweet” Corrosion Inhibitors 258
6.1.3 Sour Brine Corrosion Inhibitors and Inhibition of Microbiologically Influenced Corrosion 262
6.1.4 Inhibitors for Gas-Containing Lines and Multiphase Lines 263
6.1.5 Selection of Corrosion Inhibitors for Use in Pipelines 269
6.1.6 Chemistries for Inhibition of Cleaning Fluid Acid Attacks 271
6.2 Inorganic Scale Inhibitors and Inhibition Mechanisms 271
6.3 Organic Deposit Inhibition 275
6.3.1 Paraffin Deposition and Pour Point Inhibitors 275
6.3.2 Asphaltene Inhibitors 275
6.3.3 Gas Hydrate Inhibitors 277
6.3.4 Calcium/Sodium Naphthenate Inhibition 280
6.4 Flow Enhancement, Biocides, and Oxygen Scavengers 281
6.4.1 Demulsifiers, Foaming Agents, and Defoamers 281
6.4.2 Flow Enhancers: Drag-Reducing Agents 284
6.4.3 Biocides 288
6.4.4 Oxygen Scavengers 290
6.5 Acid Gas Scavenger Chemistry 291
6.5.1 Oxidizing Agents 292
6.5.2 Aldehydes 292
6.5.3 Nitrogen-Based Scavengers 292
6.6 Chemistry for Producing Pipeline Gels 294
6.7 Fluid Additive Injection Methods and Equipment 297
6.7.1 Continuous Treatments With Pipeline Chemicals 299
6.7.2 New Formulations for Application of Production Corrosion and Scale Inhibitors 306
6.7.3 Applications of Treatment Chemicals in the Batch Mode and Using Pigs 307
6.8 Summary and Lessons Learned 315
6.9 Best Practices and Case Histories for Maintenance Treatments of Pipelines 316
6.9.1 Monitoring and Controlling Corrosion in an Aging Sour-Gas-Gathering System: A Nine-Year Case History 316
6.9.2 Black Powder in Pipeline: Cleaning Program (Sirnes and Gundlach 2012) 316
6.9.3 Beneficial Effects of Chemical Treatment and Maintenance Pigging Programs in Returning an Offshore Pipeline to Pre–Hurricane Ike Conditions Following a Breach and the
Ingress of Seawater and Sand, and the Effects of Bacteria-Generated H2S (Powell et al. 2010;Powell et al. 2012) 316
6.9.4 Integrated Production Chemistry Management of the Schoonebeek Heavy-Oil Redevelopment in the Netherlands: From Project to Startup and Steady-State Production
(Shepherd et al. 2012) 316

7 Cleaning of Pipelines and Facilities 319
7.1 Maintenance Pigging 319
7.2 Automated Methods and Mechanical Equipment for Maintenance Cleaning 322
7.2.1 Horizontal Multiple-Pig Launchers 323
7.2.2 Vertical Multiple-Pig Launchers 323
7.2.3 Automatic Sphere Launchers 325
7.3 Chemical Solvents and Mechanisms for Cleaning Pipelines and Facilities 326
7.3.1 Introduction to Solvent Chemistry 327
7.3.2 Chemicals for Removing “Acid-Soluble” Inorganic Solids 331
7.3.3 Solvents for Alkaline Earth Sulfates 340
7.3.4 Corrosion Inhibitors for Inorganic Scale Removal Solvents 343
7.3.5 Solvents for Organic Solids 345
7.3.6 Solvents for Mixed Deposits 356
7.4 Testing of Deposits To Develop Solvents 357
7.4.1 Work Flow for Evaluation and Treatment of Inorganic,Organic, or Mixed Deposit 358
7.4.2 Chemical Identification of a Deposit 359
7.4.3 Evaluation of Solvents for Removing Inorganic/Organic Deposits 360
7.5 Application of Chemical Cleaning in Pipelines 365
7.5.1 Liquid-Phase Solvents 365
7.5.2 Examples of Treatment of Pipelines To Remove Mixed Deposits 366
7.5.3 Uses of Gelly Pigs in Pipeline Cleaning 370
7.5.4 Use of Foamed Fluids in Pipeline Cleaning and Treatment 373
7.6 Cleaning of Topside Facilities 377
7.6.1 Typical Topside Equipment Needing Cleaning ?377
7.6.2 Methods for Cleaning Topside Facilities and Heat Exchangers 378
7.6.3 On-Site Cleaning Issues 381
7.6.4 Examples of Cleaning of Oil and Gas Facilities 382
7.7 A Company’s Best Practice for Maintaining Gas-Gathering and Transmission Lines 383
7.8 Summary and Lessons Learned 383
7.9 Best Practices and Case Histories for Renovation/Remediation of Pipelines and Facilities 384
7.9.1 Pigging of Pipelines With High Wax Content (Tordal 2006) 384
7.9.2 Recommissioning of Mothballed Pipelines Offshore California:A Success Story of Cleaning, Pigging, Monitoring, and Integrity Management (Wylde 2009) 384
7.9.3 Available Methodologies Concerning the Treatment and Removal of Sand From Pipelines, With Associated Case Studies (Mackay 2013) 384
7.9.4 Innovative Methodology for Cleaning Pipes: Key to Environmental Protection (Buzelin and Lima 2008) 385
7.9.5 Cleaning the Valhall Offshore Oil Pipeline (Marshall 1990) 385
7.9.6 Conclusions 386

8 Pipeline/Facility Maintenance Health, Safety, and Environmental Issues 387
8.1 Introduction 387
8.2 Health and Safety Considerations During Pipeline/Facility Maintenance Operations 387
8.2.1 General Considerations for All Oil/Gas Operations 387
8.2.2 Specific Pipeline/Facility Considerations 393
8.3 Health, Safety, and Environmental Management 395
8.3.1 Chemical Selection To Enhance Health, Safety,and Environmental Management Compliance 395
8.3.2 Chemical Development Processes 396
8.3.3 Chemical Handling Processes To Promote Health, Safety,and Environmental Management Improvements 401
8.4 Handling, Reuse, and Disposal of Pipeline/Facility Treating Fluids and Solids 403
8.4.1 Planned Waste Disposal Options for Pipeline/Facility Cleaning Fluids 403
8.4.2 Control and Remediation of Spills in Water Bodies and on Land 407
8.4.3 Use of Remediation Chemicals in Bodies of Water and Proposed Mechanism of Action 411
8.5 Summary and Lessons Learned (Chapter and Book) 415
8.5.1 Chapter 8 Lessons Learned 415
8.5.2 General Lessons From This Book 415
Appendix A: Glossary 417
Appendix B: Nomenclature 421
References 423
Index

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