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Applied Well Test Interpretation
Applied Well Test Interpretation
John P. Spivey and W. John Lee
2013
386 pp.;Softcover
SPE Textbook Series Vol. 13
ISBN:978-1-61399-307-1
Society of Petroleum Engineers
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Description

Well test interpretation, which is the process of obtaining information about a reservoir by analyzing the pressure transient response caused by a change in production rate, plays a very important part in making overall reservoir-management decisions. From the authors of Pressure Transient Testing and Well Testing, Spivey and Lee introduce the readers of Applied Well Test Interpretation to the fundamentals of this critical piece of decision-making by focusing on the most basic well testing scenario; a single-well test on a well producing a single-phase fluid, from a single-layer, homogeneous reservoir. Available in print, digital, and digital rental formats.

About the Authors

John Spivey is the founder of Phoenix Reservoir Engineering and Phoenix Reservoir Software, LLC. Previously, he worked as a consultant for S.A. Holditch & Associates (later acquired by Schlumberger), where he specialized in production data analysis, pressure transient analysis, and numerical reservoir simulation for low-permeability gas reservoirs. He also worked for SoftSearch, Inc./Dwights EnergyData, developing PC-based graphical decline curve analysis and petroleum economics software. Spivey has designed and developed software for well test analysis and production data analysis and taught industry short courses in well test analysis, production data analysis, and production enhancement. He has served on the faculty or adjunct faculty at Abilene Christian University, Texas A&M University, and Montana Tech. Spivey holds a BS degree in physics from Abilene Christian University, an MS degree in physics from the University of Washington, and a PhD degree in petroleum engineering from Texas A&M University. He is a co-author of two books, including the SPE textbook Pressure Transient Testing; he also chaired the selection committees for the SPE Reprint Series volumes Gas Reservoir Engineering and Pressure Transient Testing.

 

John Lee is Professor of Petroleum Engineering and holder of the Cullen Distinguished University Chair at the University of Houston. Lee worked for ExxonMobil early in his career and specialized in integrated reservoir studies. He later joined the Petroleum Engineering faculty at Texas A&M and became the Regents Professor of Reservoir Engineering. While at A&M, he also served as a consultant with S.A. Holditch & Associates, where he specialized in reservoir engineering aspects of unconventional gas resources. Lee joined the University of Houston faculty in September 2011. He served as an Academic Engineering Fellow with the US Securities & Exchange Commission (SEC) in Washington during 2007-2008 and was a principal architect of the modernized SEC rules for reporting oil and gas reserves. He holds BS, MS, and PhD degrees in chemical engineering from the Georgia Institute of Technology. Lee is the author of three textbooks published by SPE and has received numerous SPE awards, including the Anthony F. Lucas Gold Medal, the DeGloyer Distinguished Service Medal, and the Honorary Membership. He is a member of the US National Academy of Engineering and the Russian Academy of Natural Sciences.

Table of Contents

Introduction

Acknowledgments

1. Introduction to Applied Well Test Interpretation

1.1 Introduction

1.2 Applications of Well Testing

1.3 Alternatives to Conventional Well Testing

1.4 Forward and Inverse Problems

1.5 Well Test Interpretation Methods

1.6 Rock and Fluid Properties

1.7 Graph Scales

1.8 Summary

Nomenclature

2. Fluid Flow in Porous Media

2.1 Introduction

2.2 Steady-State Flow

2.3 Development of the Diffusivity Equation

2.4 Infinite-Acting Radial Flow - Ei-Function Solution

2.5 Principle of Superposition

2.6 Radius of Investigation

2.7 Damage and Stimulation

2.8 Pseudosteady-State Flow

2.9 Wellbore Storage

2.10 Summary

Nomenclature

3. Radial Flow Semilog Analysis

3.1 Introduction

3.2 Drawdown Tests

3.3 Buildup Test Following Constant-Rate Production

3.4 Estimating Average Reservoir Pressure

3.5 Flow Rate Variations Before Shut-In

3.6 Summary

Nomenclature

4. Log-Log Type Curve Analysis

4.1 Introduction

4.2 Dimensionless Variables

4.3 Gringarten-Bourdet Type Curves

4.4 Manual Parameter Estimation Using the Log-Log Plot

4.5 Calculating the Logarithmic Derivative From Field Data

4.6 Summary

Nomenclature

5. Pressure Transient Testing for Gas Wells

5.1 Introduction

5.2 Gas Flow Equation

5.3 Gas-Well Drawdown Tests

5.4 Gas-Well Buildup Tests

5.5 Summary

Nomenclature

6. Flow Regimes and the Diagnostic Plot

6.1 Introduction

6.2 Power-Law Function Pressure Response

6.3 Radial Flow

6.4 Linear Flow

6.5 Volumetric Behavior

6.6 Spherical Flow

6.7 Bilinear Flow

6.8 Other Flow Regimes

6.9 Practical Aspects of Flow Regime Indentification

6.10 Summary

Nomenclature

7. Bounded Reservoir Behavior
7.1 Introduction
7.2 Types of Boundaries
7.3 Linear Boundaries
7.4 Circular Reservoir Boundaries
7.5 Multiple Linear Boundaries
7.6 Composite Reservoir Models
7.7 Summary
Nomenclature
8. Variable Flow Rate History
8.1 Introduction
8.2 Methods for Variable Rate/Variable Pressure Problems
8.3 Effect of Boundaries on a Subsequent Buildup
8.4 Spatial Interpretation of Flow Rate History
8.5 Effect of a Change in Flow Rate on a Subsequent Buildup Test
8.6 Convolution and Deconvolution
8.7 Rate Normalization
8.8 Deconvolution
8.9 Summary
Nomenclature
9. Wellbore Phenomena
9.1 Introduction
9.2 Variable Wellbore Storage
9.3 Cleanup
9.4 Movement of Gas-Liquid Interface in Wellbore
9.5 Activity During Operations
9.6 Pressure Oscillations
9.7 Gauge Problems
9.8 Data Processing Errors and Artifacts
9.9 Distinguishing Wellbore Phenomena From Reservoir Phenomena
9.10 Summary
Nomenclature
10. Near-Wellbore Phenomena
10.1 Introduction
10.2 Finite-THickness Skin Factor
10.3 Perforated Completion
10.4 Partial Penetration/Limited Entry Completion
10.5 Deviated Wellbore
10.6 Rate-Dependent Skin Factor
10.7 Rate-Dependent Skin Factor and Wellbore Storage
10.8 Estimating Non-Darcy Coefficient D From Multiple Transient Tests
10.9 Summary
Nomenclature
11. Well Test Interpretation Workflow
11.1 Introduction
11.2 Collect Data
11.3 Review and Quality Control Data
11.4 Deconvolve Data
11.5 Identify Flow Regimes
11.6 Select Reservoir Model
11.7 Estimate Model Parameters
11.8 Simulate or History-Match Pressure Response
11.9 Calculate Confidence Intervals
11.10 Interpret Model Parameters
11.11 Validate Results
11.12 Field Example
11.13 Summary
Nomenclature
12. Well Test Design Workflow
12.1 Introduction
12.2 Typical Test Design Scenarios
12.3 Define Test Objectives
12.4 Consider Alternatives to Conventional Well Testing
12.5 Collect Data
12.6 Estimate Reservoir Properties
12.7 Permeability Estimates
12.8 Estimate Test Duration To Reach Desired Flow Regime
12.9 Estimate Test Duration Based on Economics
12.10 Estimate Test Rate and Determine Flow Rate Sequence
12.11 Estimate Magnitude of Pressure Response
12.12 Select Gauges
12.13 Simulate Test
12.14 Design Example
12.15 Summary
Nomenclature
References
Author Index
Subject Index

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